Ranger, V; Goldson-Barnaby, Andrea M; Williams, Rochelle A; Bowen-Forbes, Camille S; Rattray, Vaughn R; James, Nichaniel; Thompson, Ian L
Author Affiliation, Ana.
Evaluation of the antioxidant properties, fatty acid profile, ash, zinc, crude fiber and pectin content of Jamaican sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and citrus (Citrus sinensis) by-products from a local beverage manufacturer
West Indian Medical Journal
Date of Publication
OBJECTIVE: Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and citrus (Citrus sinensis) is widely utilized in the local beverage industry. By-products from this industry are mainly utilized as fodder and fertilizer but may be of commercial value. Phytochemical analyses were therefore performed on extracts from by-products of this industry. Extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, fatty acid, crude fiber, pectin, ash and zinc content. METHODS: Antioxidant activity and total phenolics were evaluated by a spectrophotometric assay. Lipids were Soxhlet extracted and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc content was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Crude fiber, pectin and ash were determined gravimetrically. RESULTS: Extracts showed antioxidant activity with methanolic extracts containing higher levels of phenolics than ethyl acetate extracts. Lipids were a source of omega 6 and omega 9 fatty acids. Palmitoleic acid was also identified in citrus extracts. Palmitic acid is the major saturated fatty acid present. Based on the predicted iodine value, citrus lipid extracts are expected to be more stable to oxidation compared to sorrel extracts. Zinc analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that sorrel extracts had higher levels of zinc (367.3 ppm) compared to citrus extracts (Zn 5.0 ppm). Extracts were a minor source of pectin and crude fiber. CONCLUSION: By-products from the local beverage industry may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. They are a source of antioxidants, essential fatty acids, zinc and crude fiber.....