Dowe, Gwendolyn ; Smikle, Monica ; King, S. D. ; Baum, M. K.; Chout, Roger; Williams, Y.
Author Affiliation, Ana.
Department of Microbiology
Symptomatic and asymptomatic chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis in Jamaica: The potential for HIV transmission
International Journal of STD and AIDS
Date of Publication
To determine the contribution of Chlamydia trachomatis to non- gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Jamaica we studied men with NGU (n=339), and control groups including asymptomatic men who were STD contacts (n=61), asymptomatic men who were not STD contacts (n=32) and men with gonococcal urethritis (GU) (n=61). Urethral specimens were examined for C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Serological tests for syphilis (STS) and HIV-1 infection were also performed. C. trachomatis accounted for 63% of cases of NGU but high prevalences were also found in asymptomatic STD contacts (59%), asymptomatic STD non-contacts (78%) and men with GU (48%). The prevalence of C. trachomatis in men with GU differed significantly from that in men with NGU and asymptomatic STD non-contacts (P<0.05). C. trachomatis infection in men with NGU was associated with multiple sex partners (71% vs 58%; chi2=4.78; odds ratio (OR)=1.76; P<0.05) and previous history of gonococcal infection (83% vs 42%; chi2=59.8; OR=6.8; P<0.0001). Concomitant infection with HIV-1 occurred in 5.2% of cases of NGU and 50% and 90%, respectively, of the HIV-positive men had chlamydia or reactive STS. As a cost effective strategy in the control of STD and HIV we recommend presumptive treatment for C. trachomatis in men seeking STD treatment in Jamaica.....