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Publication Type
Book Chapter
Author, Analytic
Mitchell, Sylvia A.; Curtello, S.; Millar, M.; Chin, Melanie; Patrickson, D.; Ahmad, Mohammed H.
Author Affiliation, Ana.
Biotechnology Center
Title, Analytic
The propagation of Jamaican medicinal plants and testing of formulations from these plants
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Title, Monographic
Utilization of natural products in Developing Countries: Trends and needs edited by Ajai Mansingh, Ajai, Donald E Young, Donald E. , Trevor H.Yee, Rupija Delgoda, Dwight E. Robinson,Dwight E., Errol Y. Morrison, Henry I.Lowe.
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Edition
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Place of Publication
Kingston, Jamaica
Publisher Name
The Natural Products Institute, University of the West Indies
Date of Publication
2002
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Issue ID
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Page(s)
162-67
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Abstract
Plant biodiversity is threatened by the widespread collection of wild plants by people; loss of habitats due to industrialization, agriculture and urbanization; introduced species; pollution and from natural disasters. The Biotechnology Center is examining ways to use tropical plants in a sustainable way to prevent loss of biodiversity. A three-pronged approach is being taken: formulation of bioactive products, laboratory determination of bioactivity, and tissue culture multiplication/conservation. Products were made according to the Jamaica Bureau of Standards guidelines. The bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against bacteria and fungi was carried out using standard microbiological methods. The micropropagation of plants previously confirmed to have medicinal qualities was carried out using previously published methods (Mitchell et al 1995). Bioactive formulations using neem oil as the active component have been developed and successfully field tested. Neem disinfectants decreased the bacterial load on the floor of a food processing plant by 94%, decreased insect attack on callallo by 100% and controlled post harvest fungal attack of yams by 83%. In the lab, 2% neem incorporated into PDA plates was able to completely prevent fungal growth when inoculated with infected yam tubers, and significantly decreased the growth of eight pathogenic bacteria, also at 2%. The following Jamaican plants have successfully been initiated and multiplied in tissue culture: Neem trees (Azadirachta indica), Leaf-of-Life (Bryophyllum pinnatum), Garlic (Allium sativum) and Fever grass (Andropogon citratus). These were successfully initiated from seeds, leaves, cloves and axillary buds respectively. Multiplication rates of 4.3-12.2 after a four week passage have been obtained for neem on a modified basal medium alone or supplemented with 0.5. mg/1 BAP. Over 800 neem plantlets are in culture which will be at least 5,000 by within a month. It is intended to develop an in vitro collection of medicinal plants grown in Jamaica. With the approach taken above, it is hoped that interest can be developed so that the large numbers that can be gained through micropropagation can be fully utilized for the betterment of us all.....
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