Cia, Wenqui; Gonsalves, Carol; Tennant, Paula F.; Fermain, G.; Souza, Manoel Jr.; Sarindu, Nonmglak; Jan, Fuh-Jyh; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Gonsalves, Dennis
Author Affiliation, Ana.
A protocol for efficient transformation and regeneration of Carica papaya L.
Vitro Cellular and Development Biology Plant
Date of Publication
A reproducible and effective biolistic method for transforming papaya (Carica papaya) was developed with a transformation-regeneration system that targeted a thin layer of embryogenic tissue. The key factors in this protocol included: spreading of young somatic embryo tissue that arose directly from excised immature zygotic embryos, followed by another spreading of the actively growing embryogenic tissue 3 d before biolistic transformation; removal of kanamycin selection from all subsequent steps after kanamycin-resistant clusters were first isolated from induction media containing kanamycin; transfer of embryos with finger-like extensions to maturation medium; and transferring explants from germination to the root development medium only after the explants had elongating root initials, had at least two green true leaves, and were about 0.5 to 1.0 cm. tall. A total of 83 transgenic papaya lines expressing the nontranslatable coat protein gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) were obtained from somatic embryo clusters that originated from 63 immature zygotic embryos. The transformation efficiency was very high: 100% of the bombarded plates produced transgenic plants. This also represents an average of 55 transgenic lines per gram fresh weight, or 1.3 transgenic lines per embryo cluster that was spread. We validated this procedure in our laboratory by visiting researchers who did four independent projects to transform seven papaya cultivars with coat protein gene constructs of PRSV strains from four different countries. The method is described in detail and should be useful for the routine transformation and regeneration of papaya.....