Williams, Winston; Bhagwandass, A. ; Sargeant, Lincoln A. ; Shah, Dipak J.
Author Affiliation, Ana.
Department of Medicine
Severity of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Diffuse Proliferative Glomerulonephritis and the Ineffectiveness of Standard Pulse Intravenous Cyclophosphamide Therapy in Jamaican Patients
Date of Publication
The majority of patients seen at the renal clinic of the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) are of African descent. The case notes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with class 4 nephritis and who were given standard pulse intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy during the period 1990-2000 were retrospectively reviewed. Primary outcomes were doubling of serum creatinine and development of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Secondary outcomes were return of proteinuria to normal and renal remission. A total of 117 patients had a renal biopsy for SLE nephritis at the UHWI between 1990 and 2000. Of the patients, 34 (29%) had diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (WHO class 4), of which 29 were reviewed. Twenty-two patients of 24 in whom it was measured (92%) had significant proteinuria at presentation. The 24-hour proteinuria was measured at final review in 16 patients and in 10 patients it went into complete remission. At the beginning of therapy, 24 patients (83%) had renal impairment. Of the 18 who had final creatinine values, the renal function returned to normal in eight patients (44%) and an additional six patients showed a significant improvement in renal function at final review. Six patients developed end stage renal disease (ESRD). The risk (95% confidence interval) of developing ESRD at one year was 16.2% (CI, 6.4-37.6) and at two years was 23.2% (CI, 10.0-48.5). There were three deaths, two from sepsis and one from heart failure. The one-year mortality (95% CI) was 8% (CI, 2.0-28.5), the two-year mortality was 15.6% (CI, 4.9-43.5) and the five-year mortality was also 15.6% (CI, 4.9-43.5). Intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide for Jamaican patients with SLE and diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis is an ineffective form of treatment. (AU)....