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Publication Type
Journal Article
UWI Author(s)
Author, Analytic
Gibson, Roger; Fenton, M.; da Silva Freire Coutinho, E.; Campbell, C.
Author Affiliation, Ana.
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Article Title
Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illness
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Journal Title
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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Date of Publication
2004
Volume ID
3
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Notes
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Abstract
Objectives:To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search strategy:We supplemented past searches of Current Controlled Trials (10/2000), the Cochrane Library (1997) and MEDLINE (1966-1997) and appeals for unpublished data with an update search of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register of trials (September 2003). Selection criteria:All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis:Data were extracted independently by two reviewers and cross-checked. We calculated fixed effects relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. Where possible, the number needed to treat/harm statistic (NNT/H) was calculated. We analyzed by intention-to-treat. Mean differences were used for continuous variables. Main results:We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquilisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n=40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60 CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n=134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49 CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n=50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03 CI 0.00 to 0.47, NNT 2 CI 2 to 4). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n=70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39 CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4 CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n=148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three and six days (RR 0.74 CI 0.43 to 1.27). Compared with haloperidol or clotiapine, people allocated zuclopenthixol did not seem to be at more risk of a range of movement disorders (<20%). Three studies found no difference in the proportion of people getting blurred vision/ dry mouth (n=192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 0.90 CI 0.48 to 1.70). Similarly dizziness was equally infrequent for those allocated zuclopenthixol acetate compared with haloperidol (n=192, 2 RCTs, RR at 24 hours 1.15 CI 0.46 to 2.88). There was no difference between treatments for leaving the study before completion (n=522, RR 0.85 CI 0.31 to 2.31).....
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