Chaturvedi, A.K.; Wilson, M; Sanders-Lewis, K.A.; Kathi, H.A.; Urquhart, Nicole; Walters, M.A.; Miley, W.; Cranston, B.; Hanchard, Barrie; Hisada, M.
Author Affiliation, Ana.
Hematologic and biochemical changes associated with human T lymphotropic virus type 1 infection in Jamaica: A report from the population-based blood donors study.
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Date of Publication
OBJECTIVE: We investigated changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters associated with human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection, antibody titer, and provirus load. Additionally, on a subset of participants, we assessed the epidemiologic relationship of HTLV-1 with Strongyloides stercoralis. METHODS: Among volunteer blood donors in Jamaica, HTLV-1 carriers (n=482) were frequency matched with HTLV-1 negative subjects (n=355) by age (+/-5 years), sex, and date of blood donation (+/-3 months). HTLV-1 antibody titer, provirus load, S. stercoralis IgG antibodies, complete blood cell count, blood chemistry, and urinalysis parameters were measured. RESULTS: HTLV-1 carriers, compared with HTLV-1-negative individuals, had elevated levels of cleaved lymphocytes (24.5% vs. 16.4%), any lymphocyte abnormalities (atypical, cleaved, and reactive lymphocytes combined, 45.7% vs. 35.4%), and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels (21.2 vs. 19.6 IU/L), as well as lower eosinophil count (2.6% vs. 3.1%). Among carriers, HTLV-1 antibody titer (n=482) was inversely correlated with mean corpuscular volume (r=-0.10) and positively correlated with levels of total protein (r=0.16), phosphorus (r=0.12), and lactate dehydrogenase (r=0.24). HTLV-1-provirus load (n=326) was higher among carriers with cleaved lymphocytes and any lymphocyte abnormalities. Provirus load was inversely correlated with hemoglobin (r=-0.11), mean corpuscular volume (r=-0.15), neutrophil (r=-0.12), and eosinophil (r=-0.19) levels and was positively correlated with lactate dehydrogenase levels (r=0.12). Provirus load was significantly higher among male than female subjects. S. stercoralis antibodies were detected in 35 (12.1%) of 288 participants but were not associated with HTLV-1 status, antibody titer, or provirus load. CONCLUSIONS: Markers of HTLV-1 infection (infection status, antibody titer, and provirus load) are associated with hematologic and biochemical alterations, such as lymphocyte abnormalities, anemia, decreased eosinophils, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels.....