Badal, Simone A; Aiken, William D; Chin, Sheray Nicole
Author Affiliation, Ana.
Molecular targets and angiogenesis in Renal cell carcinoma: A multi-target approach
Current Drug Targets
Date of Publication
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 2% of all adult malignancies and is associated with a case fatality rate as high as 40%. RCC has been on the rise for the last 6 decades at a steady increase of 2% per annum. Much work has been done to uncover the pathogenesis of the disease and the role of angiogenesis has been a recurrent denominator connected to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its downstream effectors along with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mediated signal transduction pathway. Currently, treatment of advanced RCC includes one or more of the following: partial or radical nephrectomy, systemic therapy, immunotherapy and targeted therapy. The inclusion of targeted therapies has improved advanced RCC treatment success rates over that of surgery alone, and over that of the use of traditional chemotherapy for this relatively chemo-resistant disease. In an era of personalized medicine and polypharmacology, this review will discuss relevant inhibitors of key biomarkers to the disease in hopes of paving the way for novel treatments geared towards improving RCC morbidity and mortality rates.....